- Western marxism
- This very broad school of thought originated in the 1920s and ended its development around 1970. Notable figures associated with Western Marxism include Georgii Lukács, Karl Korsch, Antonio Gramsci, Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, and Jean-Paul Sartre. This represents a role call of some of the greatest and most innovative of Marxist thinkers, all linked by their rejection of the orthodox Marxism of the Soviet Union and of the Second International. Typical themes of Western Marxism are humanism, conceiving of Marxism as philosophy not science, and an openness to Hegelian dialectical philosophy and other non-Marxist sources for inspiration. The Frankfurt School represents an important school within Western Marxism, and also highlights the often academic character of Western Marxism and the tendency of its exponents not to involve themselves directly in workingclass movements and the revolutionary struggle (Gramsci being a notable exception). Some of the most inventive and sophisticated developments of Marxist theory have come out of Western Marxism, but, arguably, this has involved an implicit critique and undermining of Marxism.
Historical dictionary of Marxism. David Walker and Daniel Gray . 2014.
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